Glossary of EM.Cube's Materials, Sources, Devices & Other Physical Object Types

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Active One-Port

ICON: One-port icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places a one-port device or circuit at an edge of a specified strip object that is parallel to one of the three principal axes

TO DEFINE AN ACTIVE ONE-PORT:

  1. Right-click on the Active One-Ports item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Active One-Port Device/Circuit Dialog.
  3. From the Rect Strip drop-down list, select a rectangle strip object. Note that only strip objects parallel to one of the three principal axes are listed.
  4. Select one of the edges of the rectangle strip where you want to place the active device.
  5. Enter a value for Height in project units. This is the height of the microstrip transmission line above its ground plane. It determines the size of the "active sheet".
  6. Enter the Netlist description of the device in the dialog's text editor.
  7. Alternatively, you can import an existing external Netlist file with a ".CIR" or ".TXT" file extension using the Load Netlist button.
  8. In the box labeled Input Node, enter the circuit node used in the Netlist that corresponds to the physical microstrip port. The ground is assumed to be Node 0.
  9. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: active_one_port(label,rect_object,height,edge,netlist_filename,input_node)


ACTIVE ONE-PORT PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
height real numeric project units 1.5 the height of the microstrip transmission line above its ground plane
The active one-port dialog.

Active Two-Port

ICON: Two-port icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places a two-port device or circuit at the edges of two specified strip objects that are both parallel to one of the three principal axes

TO DEFINE AN ACTIVE TWO-PORT:

  1. Right-click on the Active Two-Ports item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Active Two-Port Device/Circuit Dialog.
  3. In the Input and Output Port sections of the dialog, select two distinct rectangle strip objects from the two Rect Strip drop-down lists. Note that only strip objects parallel to one of the three principal axes are listed.
  4. Select one of the edges of each rectangle strip where you want to place the input and output ports of the active device.
  5. Enter a value for Height in project units. This is the height of the two microstrip transmission lines above their common ground plane. It determines the size of the two "active sheets".
  6. Enter the Netlist description of the two-port device in the dialog's text editor.
  7. Alternatively, you can import an existing external Netlist file with a ".CIR" or ".TXT" file extension using the Load Netlist button.
  8. In the boxes labeled Input Node and Output Node, enter the circuit nodes used in the Netlist that corresponds to the two physical microstrip ports. The ground is assumed to be Node 0.
  9. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: active_two_port(label,rect_object_1,height_1,edge_1,rect_object_2,height_2,edge_2,netlist_filename,input_node,output_node)


ACTIVE TWO-PORT PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
height_1 real numeric project units 1.5 the height of the input microstrip transmission line above its ground plane
height_2 real numeric project units 1.5 the height of the output microstrip transmission line above its ground plane
The active two-port device/circuit dialog.

Anisotropic Material

ICON: Aniso group icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Defines an isotropic material object group with four constitutive tensors

TO DEFINE AN ANISOTROPIC MATERIAL GROUP:

  1. Right-click on the Anisotropic Materials item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Isotropic Material... to open up the Isotropic Material dialog.
  3. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.

NOTES, SPECIAL CASES OR EXCEPTIONS: EM.Tempo allows you to define a general anisotropic material, whose constitutive parameters, i.e. permittivity (ε), permeability (μ), electrical conductivity (σ) and magnetic conductivity (σm), are all tensorial in nature. Each constitutive parameter in this case is represented by a 3×3 matrix:

FDTD16.png

A Uniaxial material is a special case of an anisotropic material whose constitutive parameters are all diagonal matrices. Specifying an anisotropic material as Uniaxial in the FDTD Module has a very important computational implication. There are six field update equations for uniaxial materials at each time steps: three for the electric field and three for the magnetic field. In this respect, a uniaxial material is similar to an isotropic dielectric material. On the other hand, a fully anisotropic material with non-zero off-diagonal constitutive matrix elements requires twelve update equations at each time step: three equations for the three components of each of the four vector fields E, D, H and B. As a result, the time loop for fully anisotropic materials takes much longer time than uniaxial materials.


PYTHON COMMAND: None


ANISOTROPIC MATERIAL PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
Locked mesh density Real Numeric cells/effective wavelength 30 Only if "Lock Mesh" enabled
The anisotropic material dialog showing the properties of a uniaxial material.

Base Location Set

ICON: Base group icon.png

MODULE: EM.Terrano

FUNCTION: Defines a base location set group to be associated with a transmitter or receiver set

TO DEFINE A BASE LOCATION SET GROUP:

  1. Right-click on the Base Locataions item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Point Set... to open up the base Location Set dialog.
  3. The only property of a base location set is its color, which you can change from this dialog.
  4. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: base_point_group(label)


BASE LOCATION SET PARAMETERS: None

The base location set dialog.

Capacitor

ICON: Lumped device2 icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places a capacitor at a specified point on a PEC line object that is parallel to one of the three principal axes

TO DEFINE A CAPACITOR:

  1. Right-click on the Lumped Devices item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Lumped Device Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a line object. Note that only lines parallel to one of the three principal axes are listed.
  4. From the Type drop-down list, select Capacitor.
  5. By default, the lumped device is placed at the midpoint of the host line object. You can modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the start point of the line and is always positive.
  6. Enter a value for Capacitance in pF. The default capacitance is 1pF.
  7. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: capacitor(label,line_object,offset,capacitance_pF)


LUMPED CAPACITOR PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
offset real numeric project units half the length of host line object distance between the device and the start point of the host line object
capacitance real numeric pF 1 -
The lumped device dialog with the capacitor type selected.

Coaxial Port

ICON: Coax icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places a special distributed circular source of a specified width pointing away radially at one of the bases of a PEC cylinder object that is parallel to one of the three principal axes

TO DEFINE A COAXIAL PORT:

  1. Right-click on the Coaxial Ports item in the navigation tree of EM.Tempo.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Coaxial Port Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a cylinder object. Note that only PEC cylinder objects parallel to one of the three principal axes are listed.
  4. You have to specify the outer radius of the coaxial port, which is the same as the outer conductor radius of the coaxial transmission line. The inner conductor radius of the coaxial line is the same as the radius of the host cylinder object.
  5. A coaxial port can be placed at one of the two bases of the host cylinder. You can select the desired location from the Local Edge drop-down list.
  6. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: coaxial_src(label,cylinder_object,outer_radius,edge[,magnitude,phase,resistance])


COAXIAL PORT PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
outer radius real numeric project units 2 * host cylinder radius coaxial line's outer conductor radius
resistance real numeric Ohms 50 internal impedance of the distributed voltage source
The coaxial port source dialog.

Conductive Sheet Trace

ICON: Voxel group icon.png

MODULE: EM.Picasso

FUNCTION: Defines a conductive sheet trace group

TO DEFINE A CONDUCTIVE SHEET GROUP:

  1. Right-click on the Conductive Sheet Traces item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Conductive Sheet Trace... to open up the Conductive Sheet Trace dialog.
  3. Besides the color and texture properties, you have to enter values for the Electric Conductivity σ in S/m and the sheet Thickness in the project units.
  4. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.

NOTES, SPECIAL CASES OR EXCEPTIONS: In EM.Picasso, you may model imperfect metals using conductive sheet traces, which are an example of impedance surfaces. Keep in mind that you can typically model most lossless metallic traces such as micstorip lines and planar patches using PEC groups. A PEC trace is assumed to have an infinite electric conductivity and a zero metallization thickness. But also remember that since EM.Picasso's simulation engine is based on the 2.5-D method of moments (MoM), lossy embedded dielectric objects with a large σ cannot represent an imperfect metal because can only support vertical currents. A Conductive Sheet Trace group has a finite electric conductivity σ and a small nonzero finite thickness expressed in the project units.

The conductive sheet traces are modeled using the surface impedance boundary condition stated above. If the thickness of the sheet is greater than the skin depth of the metal at the project frequency, then the surface impedance is given by

[math] Z_s = \dfrac{1+j}{\sigma \delta}, \quad \delta = \sqrt{\dfrac{2}{k_0 Z_0 \sigma}} [/math]

If the thickness t of the sheet is less than the skin depth, then the conductive sheet transition boundary condition is used instead, and the surface impedance is given by

[math] Z_s = \dfrac{1}{[j k_0 Y_0 (\varepsilon_r - 1) + \sigma] \tau} = \dfrac{1}{\sigma_{tot} \tau} [/math]


PYTHON COMMAND: conductive_sheet_group(label,sigma,thickness)


CONDUCTIVE SHEET PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
sigma (σ) Real Numeric S/m 5.8e+7 electric conductivity
thickness Real Numeric project units 1.0 finite metallization thickness
Locked mesh density Real Numeric cells/effective wavelength 30 Only if "Lock Mesh" enabled
The conductive sheet trace dialog.

Coplanar Waveguide (CPW) Port

ICON: Cpw icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places two coupled special distributed sources of a specified width pointing opposite directions on the two sides of one of the edges of a PEC rectangle strip object that is parallel to one of the three principal planes

TO DEFINE A CPW PORT:

  1. Right-click on the CPW Ports item in the navigation tree of EM.Tempo.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the CPW Port Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a rectangle strip object. Note that only PEC rectangle strip objects parallel to one of the three principal planes are listed.
  4. You have to specify the width of the CPW port, which is the same as the slot width of the coplanar waveguide transmission line.
  5. A CPW port can be placed at one of the four edges of the host rectangle strip. You can select the desired location from the Edge drop-down list.
  6. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: cpw_src(label,rect_object,spacing,edge[,magnitude,phase,resistance])


CPW PORT PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
width real numeric project units 5 coplanar waveguide's slot width
resistance real numeric Ohms 50 internal impedance of the distributed voltage source
The CPW port source dialog.

Dielectric Material

ICON: Diel group icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo, EM.Ferma, EM.Picasso, EM.Libera

FUNCTION: Defines a dielectric material object group with specified constitutive parameters

TO DEFINE A DIELECTRIC GROUP:

  1. Right-click on the Dielectric Materials or Dielectric Objects item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Dielectric... to open up the New Dielectric Material dialog.
  3. Enter values for relative permittivity εr, electric conductivity σ in S/m, relative permittivity μr, and magnetic conductivity σm in Ω/m. The default values are εr = μr = 1, and σ = σm = 0.
  4. Change the color or texture of the material group if necessary.
  5. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: dielectric_group(label,eps,sigma,mu,rho)


DIELECTRIC PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
eps (εr) Real Numeric - 1.0 relative permittivity
sigma (σ) Real Numeric S/m 0.0 electric conductivity
mu (μr) Real Numeric - 1.0 relative permeability
sigma_m (σm) Real Numeric Ohm/m 0.0 magnetic conductivity
Locked mesh density Real Numeric cells/effective wavelength 30 Only if "Lock Mesh" enabled
The dielectric material dialog.

Using EM.Cube's Materials List

EM.Cube provides a preloaded database of popular and widely used materials.

Click the Materials Materials icon.png button of the Simulate Toolbar or select Menu → Simulate → Materials... or use the keyboard shortcut Ctrl+T to open EM.Cube's Materials List dialog. You can view the various material entries and their constitutive parameter values. You can also type in the first letter of a material to find it. For example, typing V selects Vacuum in the list.

In many of EM.Cube's modules you have to define material properties for as part of definition of object groups. In the property dialog of some of these groups you will see a Material button. If you click this button, it will open up EM.Cube's Material List. Select any material from the list and close the dialog by clicking its OK. The selected material's properties will then fill the corresponding parameter fields automatically.

EM.Cube's Materials List.

Defining New Custom Materials

The contents of EM.Cube's Materials List and the listed material parameters are based on published and cataloged data as well as some manufacturer data sheets. They are not definitive by any means. In fact, certain materials like different types of glass, wood, plastic, etc. may have a range of material parameters depending on the manufacturer, temperature, water content and lots of other factors. EM.Cube allows you to define new materials and add them to the Materials List. You can also modify the parameters of a standard or custom material.

The Add New Material dialog.

To add a new material, follow these steps:

  • Click the New... button of the Materials dialog open the "Add New Material" dialog.
  • Choose a name and enter values for the four constitutive parameters of the new material.
  • Check the check box labeled Specify Loss Tangent if you want to define a loss tangent instead of an electric conductivity value. In that case, the value for σ is calculated based on the center frequency of your project and reflected in the greyed-out sigma box.
  • Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the Materials dialog. You will see the name of your new name in the Materials List sorted alphabetically. The new material entry is display in blue fonts.

To edit a custom material, select it from the list and click the Edit button of Materials dialog. To modify the properties of a preloaded standard material, select its name from the list and click the arrow on the New... button of the Materials dialog and select the Modify Existing Material option from the dropdown list.

A new custom material entry in the Materials List.

Diode

ICON: Lumped device icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places an nonlinear diode at a specified point on a PEC line object that is parallel to one of the three principal axes

TO DEFINE A DIODE:

  1. Right-click on the Lumped Devices item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Lumped Device Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a line object. Note that only line parallel to one of the three principal axes are listed.
  4. From the Type drop-down list, select Diode.
  5. By default, the lumped device is placed at the midpoint of the host line object. You can modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the start point of the line and is always positive.
  6. Enter values for Saturation Current in fA, ambient Temperature in degrees Kelvin and a value between 1 and 2 for the diode's Ideality Factor.
  7. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: inductor(label,line_object,offset,inductance_nH)


LUMPED NONLINEAR DIODE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
offset real numeric project units half the length of host line object distance between the device and the start point of the host line object
saturation current real numeric fA 1 -
temperature real numeric deg K 300 -
ideality factor real numeric - 1 must be between 1 and 2
The lumped device dialog with the diode type selected.

Dispersive Material

ICON: Disp group icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Defines a dispersive material object group with specified poles

TO DEFINE A DISPERSIVE MATERIAL GROUP:

  1. Right-click on the Dispersive Materials item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Debye Material... or Insert New Drude Material... or Insert New Lorentz Material... or Insert New Generalized Metamaterial... or to open up one of the four Dispersive Material dialogs.
  3. You have to define each pole of the dispersive material individually. You can add as many poles as you want using the Add Pole button of the dialog.
  4. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.

NOTES, SPECIAL CASES OR EXCEPTIONS: EM.Tempo currently offers four types of dispersive material:

  1. Debye Material
  2. Drude Material (Unmagnetized Plasma)
  3. Lorentz Material
  4. Generalized Metamaterial

The FDTD simulation engine uses the Auxiliary Differential Equation (ADE) method to model dispersive materials. EM.Cube allows you to define an arbitrary number of poles for each of the above dispersive material types. Keep in mind that all the objects belonging to the same dispersive material group have the same dispersion properties.

The complex permittivity of a Debye material with N poles is given by:

[math] \varepsilon (\omega) = \varepsilon_\infty + \sum_{p=1}^N \dfrac{\Delta \varepsilon_p}{1 + j\omega \tau_p}, \quad \Delta \varepsilon_p = \varepsilon_{sp} - \varepsilon_\infty [/math]

where [math]\varepsilon_{\infty}[/math] is the value of the permittivity at infinite frequency, [math]\tau_p[/math] is the relaxation time corresponding to the pth pole having the unit of seconds, and [math]\varepsilon_{sp}[/math] is the value of the static permittivity (at DC) corresponding to the pth pole. [math]\Delta \varepsilon_p = \varepsilon_{sp} - \varepsilon_{\infty}[/math] represents the change in permittivity due to the pth pole.

Unmagnetized plasmas are typically modeled as Drude materials. The complex permittivity of a Drude material with N poles is given by:

[math] \varepsilon(\omega) = \varepsilon_{\infty} - \sum_{p=1}^N \dfrac{{\omega_p}^2}{\omega^2 - j\omega \nu_p} [/math]

where [math]\omega_p[/math] and [math]\nu_p[/math] are the angular plasma frequency and angular collision frequency corresponding to the pth pole, respectively, and both are expressed in rad/s. For an unmagnetized plasma, [math]\varepsilon_{\infty} = 1[/math].

The complex permittivity of a Lorentz material with N poles is given by:

[math] \varepsilon(\omega) = \varepsilon_{\infty} - \sum_{p=1}^N \dfrac{\Delta \varepsilon_p {\omega_p}^2}{\omega^2 - 2j\omega \delta_p - {\omega_p}^2}, \quad \Delta \varepsilon_p = \varepsilon_{sp} - \varepsilon_{\infty} [/math]

where [math]\omega _p[/math] and [math]\delta_p[/math] are the angular resonant frequency and angular damping frequency corresponding to the pth pole, respectively, and both are expressed in rad/s. Similar to a Debye material, [math]\Delta \varepsilon_p = \varepsilon_{sp} - \varepsilon_{\infty}[/math] represents the change in permittivity due to the pth pole.

The Debye, Drude and Lorentz dispersive materials are all isotropic dielectric materials having a scalar relative permittivity that varies with the frequency. A generalized metamaterial in EM.Tempo is defined as a uniaxial dispersive material that has three relative permittivities εr,xx, εr,yy, εr,zz and three relative permeabilities μr,xx, μr,yy, and μr,zz. These six quantities can independently be functions of the frequency in general or non-dispersive. Moreover, you can define poles of different kind for each constitutive parameter. The pole type can be Debye, Drude or Lorentz.


PYTHON COMMAND: None


DISPERSIVE MATERIAL PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
Locked mesh density Real Numeric cells/effective wavelength 30 Only if "Lock Mesh" enabled
The Debye dispersive material dialog.
Defining the parameters of a Debye-Type pole in the "Add Pole" dialog.
The Drude dispersive material dialog.
Defining the parameters of a Drude-Type pole in the "Add Pole" dialog.
The Lorentz dispersive material dialog.
Defining the parameters of a Lorentz-Type pole in the "Add Pole" dialog.
The generalized metamaterial dialog.
Defining the parameters of a Drude-Type pole for εr,xx in the "Add Pole" dialog.

Distributed Source

ICON: Distrb src icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places a distributed voltage source with a distributed internal resistor over a virtual rectangle strip object that is parallel to one of the three principal planes

TO DEFINE A DISTRIBUTED SOURCE:

  1. Right-click on the Distributed Sources item in the navigation tree of EM.Tempo.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Distributed Source Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a rectangle strip object. Note that only rectangle strip objects of virtual type and parallel to one of the three principal planes are listed.
  4. A distributed source has a field profile with three options: uniform, sinusoidal and edge-singular. The default option is uniform.
  5. The direction of the impressed electric field can be aligned along one of the edges of its host rectangle strip object, either in the positive or negative direction. You can select the desired direction from the Field Dir drop-down list.
  6. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.

NOTES, SPECIAL CASES OR EXCEPTIONS: The current version of EM.Tempo provides three spatial field profiles for a distributed source:

  1. Uniform: E = E0
  2. Sinusoidal: E = E0 cos(πy/w)
  3. Edge-Singular: E = E0 / √ [ 1-(2y/w)^2 ]

In the above functional forms, E0 is a constant, y is the coordinate along the direction of field variation measured from the center of the rectangular area and w is its total width along the y direction.


PYTHON COMMAND: distributed_src(label,rect_object,field_dir,profile[,magnitude,phase,resistance])


DISTRIBUTED SOURCE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
profile List: uniform, sinusoidal, edge-singular V/m uniform field distribution profile in the host rectangular region
offset real numeric project units half the length of host line object distance between the source and the start point of the host line object
resistance real numeric Ohms 50 internal impedance of the distributed voltage source
The distributed source dialog.

Embedded Dielectric Object Set

ICON: Diel group icon.png

MODULE: EM.Picasso

FUNCTION: Defines an embedded dielectric object set group

TO DEFINE AN EMBEDDED DIELECTRIC SET:

  1. Right-click on the Embedded Object Sets item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Dielectric Set... to open up the New Dielectric Object Set dialog.
  3. From the drop-down list labeled Host Layer, select the substrate layer to embed the new object set.
  4. Enter values for relative permittivity εr and electric conductivity σ in S/m. The default values are εr = 1 and σ = 0, representing an air void.
  5. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND:

pec_via_group(label,host_layer)


EMBEDDED DIELECTRIC SET PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
eps (εr) Real Numeric - 1.0 relative permittivity
sigma (σ) Real Numeric S/m 0.0 electric conductivity
Locked mesh density Real Numeric cells/effective wavelength 30 Only if "Lock Mesh" enabled
The embedded dielectric object set dialog.

Embedded PEC Via Set

ICON: Pec group icon.png

MODULE: EM.Picasso

FUNCTION: Defines an embedded PEC via object set group

TO DEFINE A PEC VIA SET:

  1. Right-click on the Embedded Object Sets item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New PEC Via Set... to open up the New PEC Vias Set Dialog.
  3. From the drop-down list labeled Host Layer, select the substrate layer to embed the new via set.
  4. Change the color or texture of the via set if desired.
  5. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND:

pec_via_group(label,host_layer)


EMBEDDED PEC VIA SET PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
Locked mesh density Real Numeric cells/effective wavelength 30 Only if "Lock Mesh" enabled
The PEC via set dialog.

Fixed-Potential PEC

ICON: Pec group icon.png

MODULE: EM.Ferma

FUNCTION: Defines an equi-potential perfect electric conductor object group with a specified voltage

TO DEFINE A FIXED-POTENTIAL PEC GROUP:

  1. Right-click on the Fixed-Potential PEC Objects item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Fixed-Potential PEC... to open up the Fixed-Potential PEC dialog.
  3. Besides the color and texture properties, you have to enter a value for the fixed Voltage in Volts. The default voltage is 0V.
  4. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: pec_voltage_group(label,voltage)


FIXED-POTENTIAL PEC PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
voltage Real Numeric Volts 0 -
Locked mesh density Real Numeric cells/effective wavelength 30 Only if "Lock Mesh" enabled
The fixed-potential PEC dialog.

Gaussian Beam

ICON: Gauss icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Defines a focused Gaussian beam source with specified incidence angles, polarization, beam focus point and beam radius

TO DEFINE A GAUSSIAN BEAM:

  1. Right-click on the Plane Waves item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Plane Wave Dialog.
  3. By default, a TMz-polarized plane wave source is defined with normal incidence along the negative Z-axis.
  4. You can change the Polarization type and incident Theta and Phi angles in the spherical coordinate system.
  5. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.

NOTES, SPECIAL CASES OR EXCEPTIONS: Unlike plane waves, a Gaussian beam is a localized field. By default, the dominant fundamental Hermite-Gauss mode H00 is assumed. You can define a higher-order Hermite-Gauss mode by assigning nonzero values for the modal indices p and q.

Attention icon.png The beam radius has to be at least λ0/π; otherwise, strong fields appear outside the excitation box.


PYTHON COMMAND: gauss_beam(label,theta,phi,polarization,focus_x,focus_y,focus_z,radius,p_mode,q_mode)


GAUSSIAN BEAM PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
polarization List: TMz, TEz, Custom Linear - TMz select one of the linear or circular polarization types
theta real numeric degrees 180 incident elevation angle
phi real numeric degrees 0 incident azimuth angle
focus_x real numeric project units 0 X-coordinate of beam focus point
focus_y real numeric project units 0 Y-coordinate of beam focus point
focus_z real numeric project units 0 Z-coordinate of beam focus point
radius real numeric project units 10 beam waist radius
p integer numeric - 0 first index of Hermite-Gauss mode
q integer numeric - 0 second index of Hermite-Gauss mode
The Gaussian beam source dialog.

Hertzian Short Dipole Source

ICON: Hertz src icon.png

MODULE: EM.Terrano, EM.Illumina, EM.Picasso, EM.Libera

FUNCTION: Places a short dipole radiator at a specified location in the project workspace

TO DEFINE A SHORT DIPOLE SOURCE:

  1. Right-click on the Hertzian Short Dipoles item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Short Dipole Dialog.
  3. By default, the short dipole radiator is placed at the origin of coordinates. You can modify the source coordinates.
  4. By default, a vertical Z-directed short dipole radiator is defined. You can change the components of the unit vector along the dipole to reorient it along any arbitrary direction.
  5. You may also modify the current strength and length of the Hertzian dipole.
  6. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.

NOTES, SPECIAL CASES OR EXCEPTIONS: A Hertzian dipole is the simplest type of radiator, which consists of a short current element of length Δl, aligned along a unit vector û and carrying a current of I Amperes. The product IΔl is often called the dipole moment and gives a measure of the radiator's strength. A short vertical dipole in the free space generates an azimuth-symmetric, almost omni-directional, far field. The fields radiated by a short Hertzian dipole in a free-space background medium are given by:

[math] \mathbf{ E^{inc}(r) } = - jk_0 Z_0 (I\Delta l) \left\{ \left[ 1 - \frac{j}{k_0 R} - \frac{1}{(k_0 R)^2} \right] \mathbf{\hat{u}} - \left[ 1 - \frac{3j}{k_0 R} - \frac{3}{(k_0 R)^2} \right] \mathbf{ (\hat{R} \cdot \hat{u}) } \right\} \frac{e^{-jk_0 R}}{4\pi R} [/math]
[math] \mathbf{ H^{inc}(r) } = - jk_0 (I\Delta l) \left[ 1-\frac{j}{k_0 R} \right] \mathbf{ (\hat{R} \times \hat{u} ) } \frac{e^{-jk_0 R}}{4\pi R} [/math]

where [math] R=|r-r'| \text{, } k_0 = \frac{2\pi}{\lambda_0} \text{ and } Z_0 = 1/Y_0 = \eta_0 [/math], λ0 is the operating wavelength, [math]\mathbf{\hat{u}}[/math] is the unit vector along the dipole, and r0 = (x0, y0, z0) is the position vector of the dipole source.

The radiation resistance of the short dipole is given by:

[math] R_r = 80\pi^2 \left( \frac{\Delta l}{\lambda_0} \right)^2 [/math]

The radiated power of the short dipole carrying a current I is displayed in the source dialog and is computed as:

[math] P_{rad} = \frac{1}{2} R_r |I_0|^2 = 40\pi^2 |I|^2 \left( \frac{\Delta l}{\lambda_0} \right)^2 [/math]

The radiated fields of a short dipole above a layered planar background structure are greatly altered by the presence of the substrate layers. The electric and magnetic fields radiated by a short dipole in the presence of a layered background structure are indeed the dyadic Green's functions of that structure:

[math] \mathbf{E^{inc}(r)} = \int_{\Delta_L} \mathbf{\overline{\overline{G_{EJ}}}(r|r')} \cdot (I\Delta l \mathbf{\hat{u}}) \, dl' [/math]
[math] \mathbf{H^{inc}(r)} = \int_{\Delta_L} \mathbf{\overline{\overline{G_{HJ}}}(r|r')} \cdot (I\Delta l \mathbf{\hat{u}}) \, dl' [/math]


PYTHON COMMAND: short_dipole(label,x0,y0,z0,length,uX,uY,uZ,amplitude,phase)


SHORT DIPOLE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
x0 real numeric project units 0 X-coordinate of source location
y0 real numeric project units 0 Y-coordinate of source location
z0 real numeric project units 0 Z-coordinate of source location
amplitude real numeric Amperes 1 amplitude of dipole current
phase real numeric degrees 0 phase of dipole current
length real numeric project units 3 dipole length
uX real numeric - 0 X-component of unit direction vector
uY real numeric - 0 Y-component of unit direction vector
uZ real numeric - 1 Z-component of unit direction vector
The Hertzian short dipole source dialog.

Huygens Source

ICON: Huyg src icon.png

MODULE: EM.Illumina, EM.Picasso, EM.Libera

FUNCTION: Defines an equivalent Huygens source based on a specified Huygens surface data file

TO DEFINE A HUYGENS SOURCE:

  1. Right-click on the Huygens Sources item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Import New Source... to open up Window's Open Dialog. The file extension is automatically set to ".HUY".
  3. Browse your folders to find the desired Huygens surface data file. Select it and click the Open button of the dialog.
  4. A Huygens source box appears in the project workspace. You can open the property dialog of the Huygens source and change its location and orientation.


PYTHON COMMAND: huygens_src(label,filename,[set_lcs,x0,y0,z0,x_rot,y_rot,z_rot])


HUYGENS SOURCE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
x0 real numeric project units - X-coordinate of centroid of the Huygens source box
y0 real numeric project units - Y-coordinate of centroid of the Huygens source box
z0 real numeric project units - Z-coordinate of centroid of the Huygens source box
rot_x real numeric degrees 0 rotation angle of the Huygens source box about the local X-axis
rot_y real numeric degrees 0 rotation angle of the Huygens source box about the local Y-axis
rot_z real numeric degrees 0 rotation angle of the Huygens source box about the local Z-axis
The Huygens source dialog.

Impedance Surface

ICON: Voxel group icon.png

MODULE: EM.Illumina

FUNCTION: Defines an impedance surface object group

TO DEFINE AN IMPEDANCE SURFACE GROUP:

  1. Right-click on the Impedance Surfaces item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Impedance Surface... to open up the impedance Surface dialog.
  3. Besides the color and texture properties, you have to enter values for the real and imaginary parts of Surface Impedance. The default values are 0 + j0 Ω, representing a PEC surface.
  4. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.

NOTES, SPECIAL CASES OR EXCEPTIONS: An impedance surface is a surface on which the tangential electric and magnetic fields are governed by the surface impedance boundary condition (SIBC):

[math] \mathbf{\hat{n}} \times \mathbf{\hat{n}} \times \mathbf{E} = -Z_s \mathbf{J_s} = -Z_s \mathbf{\hat{n}} \times \mathbf{H} [/math]

where [math]Z_s[/math] is the surface impedance in Ohms and [math]\mathbf{\hat{n}}[/math] is the unit outward normal on the given surface.


PYTHON COMMAND: impedance_surface_group(label,z_real,z_imag)


IMPEDANCE SURFACE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
resistance Real Numeric Ohm 0.0 real part of surface impedance
reactance Real Numeric Ohm 0.0 imaginary part of surface impedance
Locked mesh density Real Numeric cells/effective wavelength 30 Only if "Lock Mesh" enabled
The impedance surface dialog.

Impenetrable Surface

ICON: Impenet group icon.png

MODULE: EM.Terrano

FUNCTION: Defines an impenetrable surface block group

TO DEFINE AN IMPENETRABLE SURFACE GROUP:

  1. Right-click on the Impenetrable Surfaces item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Block... to open up the Impenetrable Surface dialog.
  3. In the material table, the default setting shows Brick with a relative permittivity of εr = 4.44 and an electric conductivity of σ = 0.001S/m.
  4. You can change the default material composition by selecting and highlighting it in the table and clicking the Add/Edit button of the dialog.
  5. In the Material Layer Properties dialog, either enter new values for εr and σ or click the Material button of this dialog to open EM.Cube's Materials List and select one of its entries.
  6. You can add several layers to your impenetrable surface composition. In that case, you need to define a thickness for each layer. The bottommost layer always has an infinite thickness representing an unbounded half-space medium as seen by an incident ray.
  7. After you complete the definition of all layers, click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: impenetrable_surface_group(label,epsilon,sigma)


IMPENETRABLE SURFACE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
epsilon Real Numeric - 4.44 relative permittivity
sigma Real Numeric S/m 1e-3 electric conductivity
Locked mesh density Real Numeric cells/effective wavelength 30 Only if "Lock Mesh" enabled
The impenetrable surface dialog.

Inductor

ICON: Lumped device2 icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places an inductor at a specified point on a PEC line object that is parallel to one of the three principal axes

TO DEFINE A INDUCTOR:

  1. Right-click on the Lumped Devices item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Lumped Device Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a line object. Note that only line parallel to one of the three principal axes are listed.
  4. From the Type drop-down list, select Inductor.
  5. By default, the lumped device is placed at the midpoint of the host line object. You can modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the start point of the line and is always positive.
  6. Enter a value for Inductance in nH. The default inductance is 1nH.
  7. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: inductor(label,line_object,offset,inductance_nH)


LUMPED INDUCTOR PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
offset real numeric project units half the length of host line object distance between the device and the start point of the host line object
inductance real numeric nH 1 -
The lumped device dialog with the inductor type selected.

Lumped Source

ICON: Lumped src icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places an ideal voltage source with a series internal resistor at a specified point on a PEC or thin wire line object that is parallel to one of the three principal axes

TO DEFINE A LUMPED SOURCE:

  1. Right-click on the Lumped Sources item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Lumped Source Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a line object. Note that only line parallel to one of the three principal axes are listed.
  4. By default, the lumped source is placed at the midpoint of the host line object. You can modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the start point of the line and is always positive.
  5. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: lumped_src(label,line_object,offset,polarity[,amplitude,phase,resistance])


LUMPED SOURCE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
polarity List: pos, neg - - polarity of the voltage source
offset real numeric project units half the length of host line object distance between the source and the start point of the host line object
resistance real numeric Ohms 50 internal impedance of voltage source at the gap
The lumped source dialog.

Microstrip Port

ICON: Mstrip icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places a special distributed source of a specified height underneath one of the edges of a PEC rectangle strip object that is parallel to one of the three principal planes

TO DEFINE A MICROSTRIP PORT:

  1. Right-click on the Microstrip Ports item in the navigation tree of EM.Tempo.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Microstrip Port Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a rectangle strip object. Note that only PEC rectangle strip objects parallel to one of the three principal planes are listed.
  4. You have to specify the height of the microstrip port, which is the same as the height of the microstrip's substrate.
  5. A microstrip port can be placed at one of the four edges of the host rectangle strip. You can select the desired location from the Edge drop-down list.
  6. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: microstrip_src(label,rect_object,height,edge[,magnitude,phase,resistance])


MICROSTRIP PORT PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
height real numeric project units 1.5 microstrip's substrate height
resistance real numeric Ohms 50 internal impedance of the distributed voltage source
The microstrip port source dialog.

Penetrable Surface

ICON: Penet surf group icon.png

MODULE: EM.Terrano

FUNCTION: Defines a penetrable surface (thin wall) block group of a specified thickness

TO DEFINE AN PENETRABLE SURFACE GROUP:

  1. Right-click on the Penetrable Surfaces item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Block... to open up the Penetrable Surface dialog.
  3. In the material table, the default setting shows Brick with a relative permittivity of εr = 4.44, an electric conductivity of σ = 0.001S/m and a thickness of 0.5 project units.
  4. You can change the default material composition by selecting and highlighting it in the table and clicking the Add/Edit button of the dialog.
  5. In the Material Layer Properties dialog, either enter new values for εr and σ or click the Material button of this dialog to open EM.Cube's Materials List and select one of its entries. You can also change the Wall Thickness from this dialog.
  6. You can add several layers to your penetrable wall composition. An incident ray first penetrates the topmost layer and finally exits the bottommost layer.
  7. After you complete the definition of all layers, click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: penetrable_surface_group(label,epsilon,sigma,thickness)


PENETRABLE SURFACE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
epsilon Real Numeric - 4.44 relative permittivity
sigma Real Numeric S/m 1e-3 electric conductivity
thickness Real Numeric project units 0.5 finite thickness of thin walls
Locked mesh density Real Numeric cells/effective wavelength 30 Only if "Lock Mesh" enabled
The penetrable surface dialog.

Penetrable Volume

ICON: Penet vol group icon.png

MODULE: EM.Terrano

FUNCTION: Defines a penetrable volume block group

TO DEFINE AN PENETRABLE VOLUME GROUP:

  1. Right-click on the Penetrable Volumes item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Block... to open up the Penetrable Volume dialog.
  3. From the Interface drop-down dialog, choose one of the four options: Standard Material, Rain, Fog, Vegetation.
  4. The default interface type is the standard material Brick with a relative permittivity of εr = 4.44, an electric conductivity of σ = 0.001S/m.
  5. You can change the default material composition by entering new values for εr and σ. Or click the Material button of this dialog to open EM.Cube's Materials List and select one of its entries.
  6. If you choose the Rain option, you have to enter a value for Rain Rate in mm/hr.
  7. If you choose the Fog option, you have to enter a value for Fog Density in g/m^3.
  8. If you choose the Vegetation option, Weissberger's model will be used and there is no parameter to set.
  9. After you complete the definition of all layers, click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.

NOTES, SPECIAL CASES OR EXCEPTIONS: Inside a penetrable volumes, the rays travel through a non-air medium. As a result, they experience different phase velocities and possibly additional losses. Therefore, the attenuation and propagation constants of the material medium are used for wave computations:

[math] \gamma = \alpha + j\beta = \alpha + j\frac{\omega}{c}\sqrt{\epsilon_r} [/math]

where α and β are the attenuation and propagation constants in Neper/m and radian/m, respectively, ω = 2*πf, εr is the relative permittivity of the medium and f the operational frequency.

There are four types of penetrable volumes:

  • Standard material
  • Rain
  • Fog
  • Vegetation

Standard material blocks reflect, transmit and diffract impinging rays. The ray reflection and edge diffraction mechanisms are identical to the cases of impenetrable or penetrable surfaces with the same material properties. The transmitted rays, however, travel in the material medium until they exit the other side of the penetrable volume object. This is different than the case of penetrable surfaces, where the transmitter ray is assumed to travel the very short thickness of a wall before entering the free space again, and the specular points of the entering and exiting rays are taken to be the same.

Of the above list, rain, fog and vegetation media only attenuate the incoming ray and do not generate reflected or diffracted rays. A rain medium is characterized by the Rain Rate expressed in mm/hr, and a fog medium is characterized by the Fog Density expressed in gr/m3. EM.Terrano uses Weissberger's model for the calculation of attenuation due to propagation in a vegetation medium. This model is only applicable when there is foliage obstruction (blockage by dense, dry and leafy trees) in a line-of-sight link. Weissberger's model is valid in the frequency range from 230MHz to 95GHz and provides accurate results for foliage depths up to 400m. It expressed the propagation loss as

[math] L = \left\{ \begin{array}{lr} 0.45 f^{0.284}d & d\lt14\text{m} \\ 1.33 f^{0.284}d^{0.588} & 14\text{m} \le d \le 400\text{m} \end{array} \right. [/math]

where L is the total loss in dB, d is the depth of the foliage and f is the operational frequency in GHz.


PYTHON COMMAND: penetrable_volume_group(label,epsilon,sigma)


PENETRABLE VOLUME PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
eps Real Numeric - 4.44 relative permittivity
sigma Real Numeric S/m 1e-3 electric conductivity
Locked mesh density Real Numeric cells/effective wavelength 30 Only if "Lock Mesh" enabled
The penetrable volume dialog.

Perfect Electric Conductor (PEC)

ICON: Pec group icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo, EM.Illumina, EM.Ferma, EM.Picasso, EM.Libera

FUNCTION: Defines a perfect electric conductor object group

TO DEFINE A PEC GROUP:

  1. Right-click on the PEC Objects or PEC Traces item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New PEC... to open up the New PEC Dialog.
  3. The only properties of a PEC group you can modify is its color and texture.
  4. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: pec_group(label)


PEC PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
Locked mesh density Real Numeric cells/effective wavelength 30 Only if "Lock Mesh" enabled
The PEC dialog.

Perfect Magnetic Conductor (PMC)

ICON: Pmc group icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo, EM.Illumina

FUNCTION: Defines a perfect magnetic conductor object group

TO DEFINE A PMC GROUP:

  1. Right-click on the PMC Planes or PMC Surfaces item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New PMC... to open up the New PMC dialog.
  3. The only properties of a PMC group you can modify is its color and texture.
  4. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: pmc_group(label)


PMC PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
Locked mesh density Real Numeric cells/effective wavelength 30 Only if "Lock Mesh" enabled
The PMC dialog.

Permanent Magnet

ICON: Pmc group icon.png

MODULE: EM.Ferma

FUNCTION: Defines a permanent magnet group with a specified magnetization vector

TO DEFINE A PERMANENT MAGNET GROUP:

  1. Right-click on the Permanent Magnets item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Permanent Magnet... to open up the Permanent Magnet Source dialog.
  3. Enter a value for relative permeability μr, which has a default value of 1.
  4. You have two options for Magnetization to choose from: Uniform and Inhomogeneous.
  5. If you choose the uniform option, you have to enter three numeric values for the three components of the magnetization vector Mx, My and Mz in A/m.
  6. If you choose the inhomogeneous option, you have to enter three expressions for the three components of the magnetization vector Mx, My and Mz in the global (x,y,z) coordinates.
  7. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.

NOTES, SPECIAL CASES OR EXCEPTIONS: A permanent magnet is typically a ferromagnetic material with a fixed intrinsic magnetization vector. As a result, it can be used as a source in an magnetostatic problem. When a permeable material has a permanent magnetization, the following relationship holds:

[math] \mathbf{B(r)} = {\mu} (\mathbf{H(r)} + \mathbf{M(r)} ) [/math]

where M(r) is the magnetization vector. In SI units system, the magnetic field H and magnetization M both have the same units of A/m.

It can be shown that for magnetostatic analysis, the effect of the permanent magnetization can be modeled as an equivalent volume current source:

[math] \mathbf{J_{eq}(r)} = \nabla \times \mathbf{M(r)} [/math]

If the magnetization vector is uniform and constant inside the volume, then its curl is zero everywhere inside the volume except on its boundary surface. In this case, the permanent magnetic can be effectively modeled by an equivalent surface current density on the surface of the permanent magnetic object:

[math] \mathbf{J_{s,eq}(r)} = \mathbf{M(r)} \times \hat{\mathbf{n}} [/math]

where [math] \hat{\mathbf{n}} [/math] is the unit outward normal vector at the surface of the permanent magnet object. Note that the volume of the permanent magnet still acts as a permeable material in the magnetostatic analysis.


PYTHON COMMAND: magnet_group(label,mu,Mx,My,Mz)


PERMANENT MAGNET PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
mu (μr) Real Numeric - 1.0 relative permeability
Mx Real Numeric A/m 0.0 X-component of magnetization vector
My Real Numeric A/m 0.0 Y-component of magnetization vector
Mz Real Numeric A/m 1.0 Z-component of magnetization vector
The permanent magnet dialog.

Plane Wave

ICON: Plane wave icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo, EM.Illumina, EM.Picasso, EM.Libera

FUNCTION: Defines a plane wave source with specified incidence angles and polarization

TO DEFINE A PLANE WAVE:

  1. Right-click on the Plane Waves item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Plane Wave Dialog.
  3. By default, a TMz-polarized plane wave source is defined with normal incidence along the negative Z-axis.
  4. You can change the Polarization type and incident Theta and Phi angles in the spherical coordinate system.
  5. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.

NOTES, SPECIAL CASES OR EXCEPTIONS: In the case of a free-space background medium, the incident electric and magnetic fields of the plane wave source are given by:

[math] \mathbf{E^{inc}(r)} = E_0 \mathbf{\hat{e}} e^{ -jk_0 \mathbf{\hat{k}\cdot r} } [/math]
[math] \mathbf{H^{inc}(r)} = \mathbf{\hat{k} \times \hat{e}} \frac{E_0}{\eta_0} e^{-jk_0 \mathbf{\hat{k} \cdot r} } [/math]

where [math]\eta_0 = 120\pi[/math] is the characteristic impedance of the free space, [math]\mathbf{\hat{k}}[/math] is the unit propagation vector of the incident plane wave, and [math]\mathbf{\hat{e}}[/math] is the polarization vector corresponding to the electric field of that wave.

In EM.Picasso, your plane wave source is placed above a multilayer substrate structure. In that case, the incident plane wave bounces off the layered background structure and part of it also penetrates the substrate layers. The total incident field that is used to calculate the excitation vector is a superposition of the incident, reflected and transmitted plane waves at various regions of your planar structure:

[math] \mathbf{E^{inc}(r)} = E_0 (\mathbf{\hat{e}_1} e^{ -jk_0 \mathbf{\hat{k}_1\cdot r} } + R \mathbf{\hat{e}_2} e^{ -jk_0 \mathbf{\hat{k}_2\cdot r} } ) [/math]
[math] \mathbf{H^{inc}(r)} = \frac{E_0}{\eta_0} ( \mathbf{\hat{k}_1 \times \hat{e}_1} e^{-jk_0 \mathbf{\hat{k}_1 \cdot r} } + R \mathbf{\hat{k}_2 \times \hat{e}_2} e^{-jk_0 \mathbf{\hat{k}_2\cdot r} } ) [/math]

where [math]\mathbf{\hat{k}_1}[/math] and [math]\mathbf{\hat{k}_2}[/math] are the unit propagation vectors of the incident plane wave and the wave reflected off the topmost substrate layer, respectively, and [math]\mathbf{\hat{e}_1}[/math] and [math]\mathbf{\hat{e}_2}[/math] are the polarization vectors corresponding to the electric field of those waves. R is the reflection coefficient at the interface between the top half-space and the topmost substrate layer and has different values for the TM and TE polarizations.


PYTHON COMMAND: planewave(label,theta,phi,polarization)


PLANE WAVE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
polarization List: TMz, TEz, LCPz, RCPz, Custom Linear - TMz select one of the linear or circular polarization types
theta real numeric degrees 180 incident elevation angle
phi real numeric degrees 0 incident azimuth angle
The plane wave source dialog.

Probe Gap Circuit Load

ICON: Lumped device2 icon.png

MODULE: EM.Oicasso

FUNCTION: Places a general series-parallel RLC circuit in the middle of an embedded vertical PEC via object

TO DEFINE A PROBE GAP CIRCUIT:

  1. Right-click on the Probe Gap Circuits item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Lumped Device Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a PEC Via object set.
  4. For "Lumped Circuit Type", select the Passive RLC radio button.
  5. Click the Impedance... button of the dialog to open up the Lumped Element Impedance dialog. The default series resistance is 50Ω. Check all the boxes for the series or parallel R, L, C elements as desired and enter values for the resistances, capacitances and inductances.
  6. Click the OK buttons of the dialogs to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: (Only a series resistor when amplitude is set equal to zero.)

probe_src(label,via_object,polarity[,amplitude,phase,resistance])


PROBE GAP LOAD PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
Rs real numeric Ohms 50 series resistor (must be checked)
Ls real numeric nH - series inductor (must be checked)
Cs real numeric pF - series capacitor (must be checked)
Rs real numeric Ohms - parallel resistor (must be checked)
Ls real numeric nH - parallel inductor (must be checked)
Cs real numeric pF - parallel capacitor (must be checked)
The wire gap circuit dialog.
The lumped element impedance dialog.

Probe Gap Circuit Source

ICON: Probe src icon.png

MODULE: EM.Picasso

FUNCTION: Creates an infinitesimal gap across the middle of a vertical PEC via object and places an ideal voltage source with a series internal resistor

TO DEFINE A PROBE GAP SOURCE:

  1. Right-click on the Probe Gap Circuits item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Probe Gap Source Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a PEC via object.
  4. The probe gap source is always placed in the middle of the PEC via object.
  5. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: probe_src(label,via_object,polarity[,amplitude,phase,resistance])


PROBE GAP SOURCE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
polarity List: pos, neg - pos polarity of the voltage source
amplitude real numeric Volts 1 amplitude of voltage source at the gap
phase real numeric degrees 0 phase of voltage source at the gap
The probe gap circuit source dialog.

Resistor

ICON: Lumped device2 icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places a resistor at a specified point on a PEC line object that is parallel to one of the three principal axes

TO DEFINE A RESISTOR:

  1. Right-click on the Lumped Devices item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Lumped Device Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a line object. Note that only line parallel to one of the three principal axes are listed.
  4. From the Type drop-down list, select Resistor.
  5. By default, the lumped device is placed at the midpoint of the host line object. You can modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the start point of the line and is always positive.
  6. Enter a value for Resistance in Ohms. The default resistance is 100Ω.
  7. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: resistor(label,line_object,offset,resistance)


LUMPED RESISTOR PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
offset real numeric project units half the length of host line object distance between the device and the start point of the host line object
resistance real numeric Ohms 50 -
The lumped device dialog with the resistor type selected.

Scattering Wave Port

ICON: Waveport src icon.png

MODULE: EM.Picasso

FUNCTION: Creates an infinitesimal gap across a PEC rectangle strip object at a specified location and places an ideal voltage source with a series internal resistor

TO DEFINE A SCATTERING WAVE PORT:

  1. Right-click on the Scattering Wave Ports item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Wave Port Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a PEC rectangle strip object.
  4. By default, the wave port is placed at one end of the host rect strip object. The incident wave propagates along the host strip towards this end. You can change the direction of the incident wave. You can also modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the endpoint of the host strip. This establishes the phase reference plane for computation of the scattering parameters.
  5. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.

NOTES, SPECIAL CASES OR EXCEPTIONS: A scattering wave port is made up of a gap source that is placed close to an open end of a rectangle strip representing a feed line. The other end of the line is typically connected to a planar structure of interest. in the process of planar mesh generation, EM.Picasso automatically extends the length of a port line that hosts a scattering wave port to about two effective wavelengths. This is done to provide enough length for formation of a clean standing wave current pattern. The effective wavelength of a transmission line for length extension purposes is calculated in a similar manner as for the planar mesh resolution. It is defined as [math]\lambda_{eff} = \tfrac{\lambda_0}{\sqrt{\varepsilon_{eff}}}[/math], where εeff is the effective permittivity. For metal and conductive sheet traces, the effective permittivity is defined as the larger of the permittivities of the two substrate layers just above and below the metallic trace. For slot traces, the effective permittivity is defined as the mean (average) of the permittivities of the two substrate layers just above and below the metallic trace. The host port line must always be open from one end to allow for its length extension. You have to make sure that there are no objects standing on the way of the extended port line to avoid any unwanted overlaps.


PYTHON COMMAND: wave_port(label,rect_object,offset,is_negative[,amplitude,phase])


SCATTERING WAVE PORT PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
direction List: pos, neg - pos direction of the incident wave
offset real numeric project units 0 distance between the source and the endpoint of the host strip object
amplitude real numeric Volts 1 amplitude of incident wave
phase real numeric degrees 0 phase of incident wave

RELATED LINKS: Calculating Scattering Parameters Using Prony's Method

The scattering wave port source dialog.

Slot Trace

ICON: Pmc group icon.png

MODULE: EM.Picasso

FUNCTION: Defines a slot trace object group on an infinite PEC ground plane

TO DEFINE A SLOT TRACE GROUP:

  1. Right-click on the Slot Traces item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Slot Trace... to open up the New Slot Trace dialog.
  3. The only properties of a slot trace group you can modify is its color and texture.
  4. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: slot_group(label)


SLOT TRACE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
Locked mesh density Real Numeric cells/effective wavelength 30 Only if "Lock Mesh" enabled
The slot trace dialog.

Strip Gap Circuit Load

ICON: Lumped device2 icon.png

MODULE: EM.Oicasso, EM.Libera

FUNCTION: Places a general series-parallel RLC circuit at a specified point on a PEC rectangle strip object

TO DEFINE A STRIP GAP CIRCUIT:

  1. Right-click on the Strip Gap Circuits item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Lumped Device Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a rectangle strip object.
  4. For "Lumped Circuit Type", select the Passive RLC radio button.
  5. By default, the lumped device is placed at the midpoint of the host rectangle strip object. You can modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the center of the strip and can be either positive or negative.
  6. Click the Impedance... button of the dialog to open up the Lumped Element Impedance dialog. The default series resistance is 50Ω. Check all the boxes for the series or parallel R, L, C elements as desired and enter values for the resistances, capacitances and inductances.
  7. Click the OK buttons of the dialogs to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: (Only a series resistor when amplitude is set equal to zero.)

rect_gap_src(label,rect_object,offset,polarity[,amplitude,phase,resistance])


STRIP GAP LOAD PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
offset real numeric project units half the length of host rectangle strip object distance between the device and the center of the host strip object
Rs real numeric Ohms 50 series resistor (must be checked)
Ls real numeric nH - series inductor (must be checked)
Cs real numeric pF - series capacitor (must be checked)
Rs real numeric Ohms - parallel resistor (must be checked)
Ls real numeric nH - parallel inductor (must be checked)
Cs real numeric pF - parallel capacitor (must be checked)
The strip gap circuit dialog.
The lumped element impedance dialog.

Strip Gap Circuit Source

ICON: Gap src icon.png

MODULE: EM.Picasso, EM.Libera

FUNCTION: Creates an infinitesimal gap across a PEC rectangle strip object at a specified location and places an ideal voltage source with a series internal resistor

TO DEFINE A STRIP GAP SOURCE:

  1. Right-click on the Strip Gap Circuits item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Strip Gap Source Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a PEC rectangle strip object.
  4. By default, the strip gap source is placed at the midpoint of the host rect strip object. You can modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the midpoint of the host strip and can be either positive or negative.
  5. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: rect_gap_src(label,rect_object,offset,polarity[,amplitude,phase,resistance])


STRIP GAP SOURCE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
polarity List: pos, neg - pos polarity of the voltage source
offset real numeric project units 0 distance between the source and the midpoint of the host strip object
amplitude real numeric Volts 1 amplitude of voltage source at the gap
phase real numeric degrees 0 phase of voltage source at the gap
The strip gap circuit source dialog.

Terrain Surface

ICON: Terrain group icon.png

MODULE: EM.Terrano

FUNCTION: Defines a terrain surface block group

TO DEFINE A TERRAIN SURFACE GROUP:

  1. Right-click on the Terrain Surfaces item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Terrain... to open up the Terrain Surface dialog.
  3. In the material table, the default setting shows Rock with a relative permittivity of εr = 5 and an electric conductivity of σ = 0.001S/m.
  4. You can change the default material composition by selecting and highlighting it in the table and clicking the Add/Edit button of the dialog.
  5. In the Material Layer Properties dialog, either enter new values for εr and σ or click the Material button of this dialog to open EM.Cube's Materials List and select one of its entries.
  6. You can add several layers to your terrain surface composition. In that case, you need to define a thickness for each layer. The bottommost layer always has an infinite thickness representing an unbounded half-space medium as seen by an incident ray.
  7. After you complete the definition of all layers, click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: terrain_group(label,epsilon,sigma)


TERRAIN SURFACE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
epsilon Real Numeric - 5 relative permittivity
sigma Real Numeric S/m 5e-3 electric conductivity
Locked mesh density Real Numeric cells/effective wavelength 30 Only if "Lock Mesh" enabled
The terrain surface dialog.

Thin Wire

ICON: Thin group icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo, EM.Libera

FUNCTION: Defines a thin wire object group with a specified wire radius

TO DEFINE A THIN WIRE GROUP:

  1. Right-click on the Thin Wires item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Thin Wire... to open up the Thin Wire dialog.
  3. Enter a value for the Wire Radius.
  4. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: thinwire_group(label,radius)


THIN WIRE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
Wire radius Real Numeric project units 0.3 -
Locked mesh density Real Numeric cells/effective wavelength 50 "Lock Mesh" enabled by default
The thin wire dialog.

Transmitter Set

ICON: Transmitter icon.png

MODULE: EM.Terrano

FUNCTION: Defines an transmitter set associated with an existing base location set

TO DEFINE A TRANSMITTER SET:

  1. Right-click on the Transmitters item in the navigation tree of EM.Terrano.
  2. Select Insert New Transmitter Set... to open up the Transmitter Set Dialog.
  3. From the drop-down list labeled Select Base Point Set, choose the desired base location set, which can be a single point object or a point array.
  4. By default, the transmitter set is assumed to be made up of vertical half-wave radiators.
  5. You may also force the transmitters to adjust their Z-coordinates based on the underlying terrain surface.
  6. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace. The new round symbols appear representing the transmitter set.
  7. You can open the property dialog of the transmitter set and change the radiator type to User Defined Antenna. In that case, click the Import Pattern button of the dialog to set the file path for a far-field radiation pattern data file of ".RAD" type. You can also additionally rotate the imported radiation pattern about its local X-, Y- and Z-axes.
  8. An imported radiation pattern file typically contains a total radiated power parameter at its file header. By default, this value is overridden and the Custom Power check box is checked. A default total power of 1W is assigned to each transmitter, which you can change to any arbitrary value. Or you may uncheck Custom Power to use the imported value of the total radiated power.


PYTHON COMMAND: transmitter_set(label,base_point_set[,pattern_file,rot_x,rot_y,rot_z])


TRANSMITTER SET PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
radiator type options: vertical half-wave dipole, user define antenna - vertical half-wave dipole -
pattern file file path - Models\DPL_STD.RAD imported far-field radiation pattern data file with a ".RAD" file extension for the case of user defined antenna
baseband power real numeric Watts 1 total transmitted power
phase real numeric degrees 0 phase of transmitted signal
rot_x real numeric degrees 0 additional rotation angle of the imported radiation pattern about the local X-axis
rot_y real numeric degrees 0 additional rotation angle of the imported radiation pattern about the local Y-axis
rot_z real numeric degrees 0 additional rotation angle of the imported radiation pattern about the local Z-axis
The transmitter set dialog.

Virtual Object Group

ICON: Virt group icon.png

MODULE: EM.Terrano

FUNCTION: Defines a virtual object group that will be invisible to the simulation engine

TO DEFINE A VIRTUAL OBJECT GROUP:

  1. Right-click on the Virtual Objects item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert a Virtual Material... to open up the Virtual Material dialog.
  3. Virtual materials have only one property, which is their color. You can the change from this dialog.
  4. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: virtual_group(label)


VIRTUAL OBJECT PARAMETERS: None

The virtual object set dialog.

Volume Charge

ICON: Aniso group icon.png

MODULE: EM.Ferma

FUNCTION: Defines a volume charge source group with a specified charge density

TO DEFINE A VOLUME CHARGE GROUP:

  1. Right-click on the Volume Charges item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Volume Charge... to open up the Volume Charge Source dialog.
  3. You have two options to choose from: Uniform and Inhomogeneous.
  4. If you choose the uniform option, you have to enter a numeric value for Charge Density in C/m^3.
  5. If you choose the inhomogeneous option, you have to enter an expression for Charge Density in the global (x,y,z) coordinates.
  6. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: charge_group(label,density)


VOLUME CHARGE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
density Real Numeric C/m^3 -1e-5 volume charge density with a positive or negative sign
The volume charge source dialog.

Volume Current

ICON: Voxel group icon.png

MODULE: EM.Ferma

FUNCTION: Defines a volume current source group with a specified current density vector

TO DEFINE A VOLUME CURRENT GROUP:

  1. Right-click on the Volume Currents item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Volume Current... to open up the Volume Current Source dialog.
  3. You have two options to choose from: Uniform and Inhomogeneous.
  4. If you choose the uniform option, you have to enter three numeric values for the three components of volume current density Jx, Jy and Jz in A/m^2.
  5. If you choose the inhomogeneous option, you have to enter three expressions for the three components of volume current density Jx, Jy and Jz in the global (x,y,z) coordinates.
  6. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: volume_current_group(label,Jx,Jy,Jz)


VOLUME CURRENT PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
Jx Real Numeric A/m^2 0.0 X-component of volume current density vector
Jy Real Numeric A/m^2 0.0 Y-component of volume current density vector
Jz Real Numeric A/m^2 1.0 Z-component of volume current density vector
The volume current source dialog.

Voxel Database

ICON: Voxel group icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Defines a voxel database group based on a 3D Cartesian data file

TO DEFINE A VOXEL DATABASE GROUP:

  1. Right-click on the Voxel Databases item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Import New Voxel Database... to open up the New Voxel Database dialog. This dialog gives you two options: either open an existing 3D cartesian database or go to EM.Cube's 3D Data Generator and create a new database from the group up.
  3. Click the button labeled Create New Database if you want to open the 3D Data Generator.
  4. Click the button labeled Open Exiting Database if you have already created or imported a 3D Cartesian database. In that case, clicking this button opens up the standard Windows Open dialog. The file type or file extension of the Open dialog is automatically set to ".CAR". Browse the Windows Explorer to locate the desired database file. Then, click the Open button to import the contents of the data as rectangular box object to the project workspace.
  5. Click the OK button of the dialog to close it.


PYTHON COMMAND: None


VOXEL DATABASE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
Locked mesh density Real Numeric cells/effective wavelength 30 Only if "Lock Mesh" enabled
The voxel database dialog.

Waveguide Port

ICON: Wg src icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places a TE10 modal source at a specified location across a hollow PEC box object that is parallel to one of the three principal axes

TO DEFINE A WAVEGUIDE PORT:

  1. Right-click on the Waveguide Ports item in the navigation tree of EM.Tempo.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Waveguide Port Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a box object. Note that only hollow PEC box objects parallel to one of the three principal axes are listed.
  4. By default, the waveguide port is placed in the middle of the host box object parallel to its base. You can modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the bottom base of the box.
  5. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: waveguide_src(label,box_object,offset,is_negative[,amplitude,phase])


WAVEGUIDE PORT PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
direction List: pos, neg - - direction of incident wave propagation
offset real numeric project units half the height of host box object distance between the source and the bottom base of the host box object
The waveguide port source dialog.

Wire Current

ICON: Thin group icon.png

MODULE: EM.Ferma

FUNCTION: Defines a wire current source group with a specified current and wire radius

TO DEFINE A WIRE CURRENT GROUP:

  1. Right-click on the Wire Current item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Wire Current... to open up the Wire Current dialog.
  3. Enter a value for the total Current flowing in the wire in Amperes as well as a value for Wire Radius in the project units.
  4. You may assume that the wire current consists of multiple turns or multiple bundled wires. The default number of turns is 1, but you can change it.
  5. The current flowing in the wire is directional. You may need to check the box labeled Reverse Current if you prefer the opposite direction.
  6. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.

NOTES, SPECIAL CASES OR EXCEPTIONS: EM.Ferma allows you to define idealized wire current sources. You can use this source type to model filament currents or coils. Wire currents are defined using only line and polyline objects. You also need to define a current value I in Amperes and a wire radius r in the project units. The line or polyline object is then approximated as a volume current with a current density of J = I/(πr2) flowing along the line or polyline side's direction.

Attention icon.png If you draw curve CAD objects under a wire current group, they will be permanently converted to polyline objects before running the simulation engine.


PYTHON COMMAND: wire_current_group(label,current,wire_radius)


WIRE CURRENT PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
current Real Numeric A 1.0 total current flowing through the wire
wire_radius Real Numeric project units 0.5 -
wire_count Integer Numeric - 1 number of collocated wires or loop turns
The wire current source dialog.

Wire Gap Circuit Load

ICON: Lumped device2 icon.png

MODULE: EM.Libera

FUNCTION: Places a general series-parallel RLC circuit at a specified point on a PEC line object

TO DEFINE A WIRE GAP CIRCUIT:

  1. Right-click on the Wire Gap Circuits item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Lumped Device Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a line object.
  4. For "Lumped Circuit Type", select the Passive RLC radio button.
  5. By default, the lumped device is placed at the midpoint of the host line object. You can modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the start point of the line and is always positive.
  6. Click the Impedance... button of the dialog to open up the Lumped Element Impedance dialog. The default series resistance is 50Ω. Check all the boxes for the series or parallel R, L, C elements as desired and enter values for the resistances, capacitances and inductances.
  7. Click the OK buttons of the dialogs to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: (Only a series resistor when amplitude is set equal to zero.)

wire_gap_src(label,line_object,offset,polarity[,amplitude,phase,resistance])


WIRE GAP LOAD PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
offset real numeric project units half the length of host line object distance between the device and the start point of the host line object
Rs real numeric Ohms 50 series resistor (must be checked)
Ls real numeric nH - series inductor (must be checked)
Cs real numeric pF - series capacitor (must be checked)
Rs real numeric Ohms - parallel resistor (must be checked)
Ls real numeric nH - parallel inductor (must be checked)
Cs real numeric pF - parallel capacitor (must be checked)
The wire gap circuit dialog.
The lumped element impedance dialog.

Wire Gap Circuit Source

ICON: Gap src icon.png

MODULE: EM.Libera

FUNCTION: Creates an infinitesimal gap across a PEC or thin wire line object at a specified location and places an ideal voltage source with a series internal resistor

TO DEFINE A WIRE GAP SOURCE:

  1. Right-click on the Wire Gap Circuits item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Wire Gap Source Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a PEC or thin wire line object.
  4. By default, the wire gap source is placed at the midpoint of the host line object. You can modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the start point of the host line and is always positive.
  5. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: wire_gap_src(label,line_object,offset,polarity[,amplitude,phase,resistance])


WIRE GAP SOURCE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
polarity List: pos, neg - pos polarity of the voltage source
offset real numeric project units 0 distance between the source and the start point of the host line object
amplitude real numeric Volts 1 amplitude of voltage source at the gap
phase real numeric degrees 0 phase of voltage source at the gap
The wire gap circuit source dialog.



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