Glossary of EM.Cube's Sources & Devices

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Active Distributed One-Port Device

ICON: One-port icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places an active distributed one-port device or circuit with a Netlist definition at an edge of a specified strip object that is parallel to one of the three principal axes

TO DEFINE AN ACTIVE DISTRIBUTED ONE-PORT DEVICE:

  1. Right-click on the Active One-Ports item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Active One-Port Device/Circuit Dialog.
  3. From the Rect Strip drop-down list, select a rectangle strip object. Note that only strip objects parallel to one of the three principal axes are listed.
  4. Select one of the edges of the rectangle strip where you want to place the active device.
  5. Enter a value for Height in project units. This is the height of the microstrip transmission line above its ground plane. It determines the size of the "active sheet".
  6. Enter the Netlist description of the device in the dialog's text editor.
  7. Alternatively, you can import an existing external Netlist file with a ".CIR" or ".TXT" file extension using the Load Netlist button.
  8. In the box labeled Input Node, enter the circuit node used in the Netlist that corresponds to the physical microstrip port. The ground is assumed to be Node 0.
  9. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: distributed_one_port(label,rect_object,height,edge,netlist_filename,input_node)


ACTIVE DISTRIBUTED ONE-PORT DEVICE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
height real numeric project units 1.5 the height of the microstrip transmission line above its ground plane
input_port integer numeric - 1 Netlist circuit node that is connected to the FDTD mesh
The active distributed one-port device dialog.

Active Distributed Two-Port Device

ICON: Two-port icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places an active distributed two-port device or circuit with a Netlist definition at the edges of two specified strip objects that are both parallel to one of the three principal axes

TO DEFINE AN ACTIVE DISTRIBUTED TWO-PORT DEVICE:

  1. Right-click on the Active Two-Ports item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Active Two-Port Device/Circuit Dialog.
  3. In the Input and Output Port sections of the dialog, select two distinct rectangle strip objects from the two Rect Strip drop-down lists. Note that only strip objects parallel to one of the three principal axes are listed.
  4. Select one of the edges of each rectangle strip where you want to place the input and output ports of the active device.
  5. Enter a value for Height in project units. This is the height of the two microstrip transmission lines above their common ground plane. It determines the size of the two "active sheets".
  6. Enter the Netlist description of the two-port device in the dialog's text editor.
  7. Alternatively, you can import an existing external Netlist file with a ".CIR" or ".TXT" file extension using the Load Netlist button.
  8. In the boxes labeled Input Node and Output Node, enter the circuit nodes used in the Netlist that corresponds to the two physical microstrip ports. The ground is assumed to be Node 0.
  9. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: distributed_two_port(label,rect_object_1,height_1,edge_1,rect_object_2,height_2,edge_2,netlist_filename,input_node,output_node)


ACTIVE DISTRIBUTED TWO-PORT DEVICE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
height_1 real numeric project units 1.5 the height of the input microstrip transmission line above its ground plane
height_2 real numeric project units 1.5 the height of the output microstrip transmission line above its ground plane
input_port integer numeric - 1 Netlist circuit node that is connected to the FDTD mesh at Port 1
output_port integer numeric - 2 Netlist circuit node that is connected to the FDTD mesh at Port 2
The active distributed two-port device dialog.

Active Lumped One-Port Device

ICON: Lumped device2 icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places a lumped active one-port device or circuit with a Netlist definition at a specified point on a PEC line object that is parallel to one of the three principal axes

TO DEFINE AN ACTIVE LUMPED ONE-PORT DEVICE:

  1. Right-click on the Lumped Devices item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Lumped Device Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a line object. Note that only lines parallel to one of the three principal axes are listed.
  4. From the Type drop-down list, select One-Port Netlist Circuit.
  5. By default, the lumped device is placed at the midpoint of the host line object. You can modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the start point of the line and is always positive.
  6. Enter the Netlist definition of your one-port circuit in the box labeled Netlist'.
  7. Alternatively, you can import a Netlist text file. Click the Load Netlist button of the dialog. The standard Windows Open dialog opens up. You can import text files with a ".CIR" or ".TXT" file extension.
  8. Enter an integer value for Input Node of your circuit. The device will be connected to the FDTD mesh at the specified input node and the ground node (0).
  9. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: lumped_one_port(label,line_object,offset,netlist_filename,input_node)


ACTIVE LUMPED ONE-PORT DEVICE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
offset real numeric project units half the length of host line object distance between the device and the start point of the host line object
input_port integer numeric - 1 Netlist circuit node that is connected to the FDTD mesh
The lumped device dialog with the active lumped one-port device type selected.

Active Lumped Two-Port Device

ICON: Lumped device2 icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places a lumped active two-port device or circuit with a Netlist definition at a specified point on a PEC line object that is parallel to one of the three principal axes

TO DEFINE AN ACTIVE LUMPED ONE-PORT DEVICE:

  1. Right-click on the Lumped Devices item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Lumped Device Dialog.
  3. From the Host Obj. 1 drop-down list, select a line object. Note that only lines parallel to one of the three principal axes are listed.
  4. From the Type drop-down list, select Two-Port Netlist Circuit.
  5. For a two-port device, you need to select a second host line from the drop-down list labeled Host Obj. 2.
  6. By default, the lumped device is placed at the midpoint of the host line object. You can modify the two Offset parameters, which are measured from the start point of the host lines and are always positive.
  7. Enter the Netlist definition of your two-port circuit in the box labeled Netlist'.
  8. Alternatively, you can import a Netlist text file. Click the Load Netlist button of the dialog. The standard Windows Open dialog opens up. You can import text files with a ".CIR" or ".TXT" file extension.
  9. Enter two integer values for Input Node' and Output Node of your circuit. The two-pot device will be connected to the FDTD mesh at the specified input and output nodes and the ground node (0).
  10. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: lumped_two_port(label,line_object_1,offset_1,line_object_2,offset_2,netlist_filename,input_node,output_node)


ACTIVE LUMPED TWO-PORT DEVICE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
offset1 real numeric project units half the length of host line object distance between Port 1 and the start point of the first host line object
offset2 real numeric project units half the length of host line object distance between Port 2 and the start point of the second host line object
input_port integer numeric - 1 Netlist circuit node that is connected to the FDTD mesh at Port 1
output_port integer numeric - 2 Netlist circuit node that is connected to the FDTD mesh at Port 2
The lumped device dialog with the active lumped two-port device type selected.

Capacitor

ICON: Lumped device2 icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places a capacitor at a specified point on a PEC line object that is parallel to one of the three principal axes

TO DEFINE A CAPACITOR:

  1. Right-click on the Lumped Devices item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Lumped Device Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a line object. Note that only lines parallel to one of the three principal axes are listed.
  4. From the Type drop-down list, select Capacitor.
  5. By default, the lumped device is placed at the midpoint of the host line object. You can modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the start point of the line and is always positive.
  6. Enter a value for Capacitance in pF. The default capacitance is 1pF.
  7. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: capacitor(label,line_object,offset,capacitance_pF)


LUMPED CAPACITOR PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
offset real numeric project units half the length of host line object distance between the device and the start point of the host line object
capacitance real numeric pF 1 -
The lumped device dialog with the capacitor type selected.

Coaxial Port

ICON: Coax icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places a special distributed circular source of a specified width pointing away radially at one of the bases of a PEC cylinder object that is parallel to one of the three principal axes

TO DEFINE A COAXIAL PORT:

  1. Right-click on the Coaxial Ports item in the navigation tree of EM.Tempo.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Coaxial Port Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a cylinder object. Note that only PEC cylinder objects parallel to one of the three principal axes are listed.
  4. You have to specify the outer radius of the coaxial port, which is the same as the outer conductor radius of the coaxial transmission line. The inner conductor radius of the coaxial line is the same as the radius of the host cylinder object.
  5. A coaxial port can be placed at one of the two bases of the host cylinder. You can select the desired location from the Local Edge drop-down list.
  6. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: coaxial_src(label,cylinder_object,outer_radius,edge[,magnitude,phase,resistance])


COAXIAL PORT PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
outer radius real numeric project units 2 * host cylinder radius coaxial line's outer conductor radius
resistance real numeric Ohms 50 internal impedance of the distributed voltage source
The coaxial port source dialog.

Coplanar Waveguide (CPW) Port

ICON: Cpw icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places two coupled special distributed sources of a specified width pointing opposite directions on the two sides of one of the edges of a PEC rectangle strip object that is parallel to one of the three principal planes

TO DEFINE A CPW PORT:

  1. Right-click on the CPW Ports item in the navigation tree of EM.Tempo.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the CPW Port Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a rectangle strip object. Note that only PEC rectangle strip objects parallel to one of the three principal planes are listed.
  4. You have to specify the width of the CPW port, which is the same as the slot width of the coplanar waveguide transmission line.
  5. A CPW port can be placed at one of the four edges of the host rectangle strip. You can select the desired location from the Edge drop-down list.
  6. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: cpw_src(label,rect_object,spacing,edge[,magnitude,phase,resistance])


CPW PORT PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
width real numeric project units 5 coplanar waveguide's slot width
resistance real numeric Ohms 50 internal impedance of the distributed voltage source
The CPW port source dialog.

Diode

ICON: Lumped device icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places an nonlinear diode at a specified point on a PEC line object that is parallel to one of the three principal axes

TO DEFINE A DIODE:

  1. Right-click on the Lumped Devices item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Lumped Device Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a line object. Note that only line parallel to one of the three principal axes are listed.
  4. From the Type drop-down list, select Diode.
  5. By default, the lumped device is placed at the midpoint of the host line object. You can modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the start point of the line and is always positive.
  6. Enter values for Saturation Current in fA, ambient Temperature in degrees Kelvin and a value between 1 and 2 for the diode's Ideality Factor.
  7. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: inductor(label,line_object,offset,inductance_nH)


LUMPED NONLINEAR DIODE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
offset real numeric project units half the length of host line object distance between the device and the start point of the host line object
saturation current real numeric fA 1 -
temperature real numeric deg K 300 -
ideality factor real numeric - 1 must be between 1 and 2
The lumped device dialog with the diode type selected.

Distributed Source

ICON: Distrb src icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places a distributed voltage source with a distributed internal resistor over a virtual rectangle strip object that is parallel to one of the three principal planes

TO DEFINE A DISTRIBUTED SOURCE:

  1. Right-click on the Distributed Sources item in the navigation tree of EM.Tempo.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Distributed Source Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a rectangle strip object. Note that only rectangle strip objects of virtual type and parallel to one of the three principal planes are listed.
  4. A distributed source has a field profile with three options: uniform, sinusoidal and edge-singular. The default option is uniform.
  5. The direction of the impressed electric field can be aligned along one of the edges of its host rectangle strip object, either in the positive or negative direction. You can select the desired direction from the Field Dir drop-down list.
  6. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.

NOTES, SPECIAL CASES OR EXCEPTIONS: The current version of EM.Tempo provides three spatial field profiles for a distributed source:

  1. Uniform: E = E0
  2. Sinusoidal: E = E0 cos(πy/w)
  3. Edge-Singular: E = E0 / √ [ 1-(2y/w)^2 ]

In the above functional forms, E0 is a constant, y is the coordinate along the direction of field variation measured from the center of the rectangular area and w is its total width along the y direction.


PYTHON COMMAND: distributed_src(label,rect_object,field_dir,profile[,magnitude,phase,resistance])


DISTRIBUTED SOURCE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
profile List: uniform, sinusoidal, edge-singular V/m uniform field distribution profile in the host rectangular region
offset real numeric project units half the length of host line object distance between the source and the start point of the host line object
resistance real numeric Ohms 50 internal impedance of the distributed voltage source
The distributed source dialog.

Filamentary Current Source

ICON: Hertz src icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places a filamentary current source at a specified location in the project workspace

TO DEFINE A FILAMENTARY CURRENT SOURCE:

  1. Right-click on the Filamentary Current Sources item in the navigation tree.
  2. Either select Insert New Hertzian Short Dipole Source... or select Insert New Long Wire Current Source... to open up the Filamentary Current Source Dialog.
  3. By default, the filamentary current source is placed at the origin of coordinates. You can modify the source's center coordinates.
  4. The "Current Distribution Profile" dropdown list provides four options: Hertzian Short Dipole Radiator, Uniform Long Wire Current, Triangular Long Wire Current and Sinusoidal Long Wire Current. Select the desired type.
  5. By default, a vertical Z-directed current is defined. You can change the components of the unit vector along the dipole to reorient it along any arbitrary direction. In the case of a long wire current source, it has to be oriented along one of the three principal axes. In other words, only one of uX, uY or uZ components must be one and the other two must be zero.
  6. You may also modify the current amplitude and phase as well as the filament length.
  7. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.

NOTES, SPECIAL CASES OR EXCEPTIONS: A filamentary current source with Hertzian short dipole radiator profile is equivalent to Hertzian Short Dipole Source in the other computational modules of EM.Cube.


PYTHON COMMAND: None


SHORT DIPOLE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
x0 real numeric project units 0 X-coordinate of source location
y0 real numeric project units 0 Y-coordinate of source location
z0 real numeric project units 0 Z-coordinate of source location
amplitude real numeric Amperes 1 amplitude of filamentary current
phase real numeric degrees 0 phase of filamentary current
length real numeric project units 3 filament length
uX real numeric - 0 X-component of unit direction vector
uY real numeric - 0 Y-component of unit direction vector
uZ real numeric - 1 Z-component of unit direction vector
The filamentary current source dialog.

Gaussian Beam

ICON: Gauss icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Defines a focused Gaussian beam source with specified incidence angles, polarization, beam focus point and beam radius

TO DEFINE A GAUSSIAN BEAM:

  1. Right-click on the Plane Waves item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Plane Wave Dialog.
  3. By default, a TMz-polarized plane wave source is defined with normal incidence along the negative Z-axis.
  4. You can change the Polarization type and incident Theta and Phi angles in the spherical coordinate system.
  5. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.

NOTES, SPECIAL CASES OR EXCEPTIONS: Unlike plane waves, a Gaussian beam is a localized field. By default, the dominant fundamental Hermite-Gauss mode H00 is assumed. You can define a higher-order Hermite-Gauss mode by assigning nonzero values for the modal indices p and q.

Attention icon.png The beam radius has to be at least λ0/π; otherwise, strong fields appear outside the excitation box.


PYTHON COMMAND: gauss_beam(label,theta,phi,polarization,focus_x,focus_y,focus_z,radius,p_mode,q_mode)


GAUSSIAN BEAM PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
polarization List: TMz, TEz, Custom Linear - TMz select one of the linear or circular polarization types
theta real numeric degrees 180 incident elevation angle
phi real numeric degrees 0 incident azimuth angle
focus_x real numeric project units 0 X-coordinate of beam focus point
focus_y real numeric project units 0 Y-coordinate of beam focus point
focus_z real numeric project units 0 Z-coordinate of beam focus point
radius real numeric project units 10 beam waist radius
p integer numeric - 0 first index of Hermite-Gauss mode
q integer numeric - 0 second index of Hermite-Gauss mode
The Gaussian beam source dialog.

Hertzian Short Dipole Source

ICON: Hertz src icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo, EM.Terrano, EM.Illumina, EM.Picasso, EM.Libera

FUNCTION: Places a short dipole radiator at a specified location in the project workspace

TO DEFINE A SHORT DIPOLE SOURCE:

  1. Right-click on the Hertzian Short Dipoles item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Short Dipole Dialog.
  3. By default, the short dipole radiator is placed at the origin of coordinates. You can modify the source coordinates.
  4. By default, a vertical Z-directed short dipole radiator is defined. You can change the components of the unit vector along the dipole to reorient it along any arbitrary direction.
  5. You may also modify the current strength and length of the Hertzian dipole.
  6. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.

NOTES, SPECIAL CASES OR EXCEPTIONS: A Hertzian dipole is the simplest type of radiator, which consists of a short current element of length Δl, aligned along a unit vector û and carrying a current of I Amperes. The product IΔl is often called the dipole moment and gives a measure of the radiator's strength. A short vertical dipole in the free space generates an azimuth-symmetric, almost omni-directional, far field. The fields radiated by a short Hertzian dipole in a free-space background medium are given by:

[math] \mathbf{ E^{inc}(r) } = - jk_0 Z_0 (I\Delta l) \left\{ \left[ 1 - \frac{j}{k_0 R} - \frac{1}{(k_0 R)^2} \right] \mathbf{\hat{u}} - \left[ 1 - \frac{3j}{k_0 R} - \frac{3}{(k_0 R)^2} \right] \mathbf{ (\hat{R} \cdot \hat{u}) } \right\} \frac{e^{-jk_0 R}}{4\pi R} [/math]
[math] \mathbf{ H^{inc}(r) } = - jk_0 (I\Delta l) \left[ 1-\frac{j}{k_0 R} \right] \mathbf{ (\hat{R} \times \hat{u} ) } \frac{e^{-jk_0 R}}{4\pi R} [/math]

where [math] R=|r-r'| \text{, } k_0 = \frac{2\pi}{\lambda_0} \text{ and } Z_0 = 1/Y_0 = \eta_0 [/math], λ0 is the operating wavelength, [math]\mathbf{\hat{u}}[/math] is the unit vector along the dipole, and r0 = (x0, y0, z0) is the position vector of the dipole source.

The radiation resistance of the short dipole is given by:

[math] R_r = 80\pi^2 \left( \frac{\Delta l}{\lambda_0} \right)^2 [/math]

The radiated power of the short dipole carrying a current I is displayed in the source dialog and is computed as:

[math] P_{rad} = \frac{1}{2} R_r |I_0|^2 = 40\pi^2 |I|^2 \left( \frac{\Delta l}{\lambda_0} \right)^2 [/math]

The radiated fields of a short dipole above a layered planar background structure are greatly altered by the presence of the substrate layers. The electric and magnetic fields radiated by a short dipole in the presence of a layered background structure are indeed the dyadic Green's functions of that structure:

[math] \mathbf{E^{inc}(r)} = \int_{\Delta_L} \mathbf{\overline{\overline{G_{EJ}}}(r|r')} \cdot (I\Delta l \mathbf{\hat{u}}) \, dl' [/math]
[math] \mathbf{H^{inc}(r)} = \int_{\Delta_L} \mathbf{\overline{\overline{G_{HJ}}}(r|r')} \cdot (I\Delta l \mathbf{\hat{u}}) \, dl' [/math]


PYTHON COMMAND: short_dipole(label,x0,y0,z0,length,uX,uY,uZ,amplitude,phase)


SHORT DIPOLE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
x0 real numeric project units 0 X-coordinate of source location
y0 real numeric project units 0 Y-coordinate of source location
z0 real numeric project units 0 Z-coordinate of source location
amplitude real numeric Amperes 1 amplitude of dipole current
phase real numeric degrees 0 phase of dipole current
length real numeric project units 3 dipole length
uX real numeric - 0 X-component of unit direction vector
uY real numeric - 0 Y-component of unit direction vector
uZ real numeric - 1 Z-component of unit direction vector
The Hertzian short dipole source dialog.

Inductor

ICON: Lumped device2 icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places an inductor at a specified point on a PEC line object that is parallel to one of the three principal axes

TO DEFINE A INDUCTOR:

  1. Right-click on the Lumped Devices item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Lumped Device Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a line object. Note that only line parallel to one of the three principal axes are listed.
  4. From the Type drop-down list, select Inductor.
  5. By default, the lumped device is placed at the midpoint of the host line object. You can modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the start point of the line and is always positive.
  6. Enter a value for Inductance in nH. The default inductance is 1nH.
  7. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: inductor(label,line_object,offset,inductance_nH)


LUMPED INDUCTOR PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
offset real numeric project units half the length of host line object distance between the device and the start point of the host line object
inductance real numeric nH 1 -
The lumped device dialog with the inductor type selected.

Lumped Source

ICON: Lumped src icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places an ideal voltage source with a series internal resistor at a specified point on a PEC or thin wire line object that is parallel to one of the three principal axes

TO DEFINE A LUMPED SOURCE:

  1. Right-click on the Lumped Sources item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Lumped Source Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a line object. Note that only line parallel to one of the three principal axes are listed.
  4. By default, the lumped source is placed at the midpoint of the host line object. You can modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the start point of the line and is always positive.
  5. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: lumped_src(label,line_object,offset,polarity[,amplitude,phase,resistance])


LUMPED SOURCE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
polarity List: pos, neg - - polarity of the voltage source
offset real numeric project units half the length of host line object distance between the source and the start point of the host line object
resistance real numeric Ohms 50 internal impedance of voltage source at the gap
The lumped source dialog.

Microstrip Port

ICON: Mstrip icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places a special distributed source of a specified height underneath one of the edges of a PEC rectangle strip object that is parallel to one of the three principal planes

TO DEFINE A MICROSTRIP PORT:

  1. Right-click on the Microstrip Ports item in the navigation tree of EM.Tempo.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Microstrip Port Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a rectangle strip object. Note that only PEC rectangle strip objects parallel to one of the three principal planes are listed.
  4. You have to specify the height of the microstrip port, which is the same as the height of the microstrip's substrate.
  5. A microstrip port can be placed at one of the four edges of the host rectangle strip. You can select the desired location from the Edge drop-down list.
  6. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: microstrip_src(label,rect_object,height,edge[,magnitude,phase,resistance])


MICROSTRIP PORT PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
height real numeric project units 1.5 microstrip's substrate height
resistance real numeric Ohms 50 internal impedance of the distributed voltage source
The microstrip port source dialog.

Parallel RC Device

ICON: Lumped device2 icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places a collocated parallel combination of a resistor and a capacitor at a specified point on a PEC line object that is parallel to one of the three principal axes

TO DEFINE A SERIES RL DEVICE:

  1. Right-click on the Lumped Devices item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Lumped Device Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a line object. Note that only lines parallel to one of the three principal axes are listed.
  4. From the Type drop-down list, select Parallel RC.
  5. By default, the lumped device is placed at the midpoint of the host line object. You can modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the start point of the line and is always positive.
  6. Enter a value for Resistance in Ohms and a value for Capacitance in pF. The default values are 100Ω and 1pF, respectively.
  7. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: None


LUMPED PARALLEL RC DEVICE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
offset real numeric project units half the length of host line object distance between the device and the start point of the host line object
resistance real numeric Ohms 100 -
capacitance real numeric pF 1 -
The lumped device dialog with the Parallel RC device type selected.

Plane Wave

ICON: Plane wave icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo, EM.Illumina, EM.Picasso, EM.Libera

FUNCTION: Defines a plane wave source with specified incidence angles and polarization

TO DEFINE A PLANE WAVE:

  1. Right-click on the Plane Waves item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Plane Wave Dialog.
  3. By default, a TMz-polarized plane wave source is defined with normal incidence along the negative Z-axis.
  4. You can change the Polarization type and incident Theta and Phi angles in the spherical coordinate system.
  5. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.

NOTES, SPECIAL CASES OR EXCEPTIONS: In the case of a free-space background medium, the incident electric and magnetic fields of the plane wave source are given by:

[math] \mathbf{E^{inc}(r)} = E_0 \mathbf{\hat{e}} e^{ -jk_0 \mathbf{\hat{k}\cdot r} } [/math]
[math] \mathbf{H^{inc}(r)} = \mathbf{\hat{k} \times \hat{e}} \frac{E_0}{\eta_0} e^{-jk_0 \mathbf{\hat{k} \cdot r} } [/math]

where [math]\eta_0 = 120\pi[/math] is the characteristic impedance of the free space, [math]\mathbf{\hat{k}}[/math] is the unit propagation vector of the incident plane wave, and [math]\mathbf{\hat{e}}[/math] is the polarization vector corresponding to the electric field of that wave.

In EM.Picasso, your plane wave source is placed above a multilayer substrate structure. In that case, the incident plane wave bounces off the layered background structure and part of it also penetrates the substrate layers. The total incident field that is used to calculate the excitation vector is a superposition of the incident, reflected and transmitted plane waves at various regions of your planar structure:

[math] \mathbf{E^{inc}(r)} = E_0 (\mathbf{\hat{e}_1} e^{ -jk_0 \mathbf{\hat{k}_1\cdot r} } + R \mathbf{\hat{e}_2} e^{ -jk_0 \mathbf{\hat{k}_2\cdot r} } ) [/math]
[math] \mathbf{H^{inc}(r)} = \frac{E_0}{\eta_0} ( \mathbf{\hat{k}_1 \times \hat{e}_1} e^{-jk_0 \mathbf{\hat{k}_1 \cdot r} } + R \mathbf{\hat{k}_2 \times \hat{e}_2} e^{-jk_0 \mathbf{\hat{k}_2\cdot r} } ) [/math]

where [math]\mathbf{\hat{k}_1}[/math] and [math]\mathbf{\hat{k}_2}[/math] are the unit propagation vectors of the incident plane wave and the wave reflected off the topmost substrate layer, respectively, and [math]\mathbf{\hat{e}_1}[/math] and [math]\mathbf{\hat{e}_2}[/math] are the polarization vectors corresponding to the electric field of those waves. R is the reflection coefficient at the interface between the top half-space and the topmost substrate layer and has different values for the TM and TE polarizations.


PYTHON COMMAND: planewave(label,theta,phi,polarization)


PLANE WAVE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
polarization List: TMz, TEz, LCPz, RCPz, Custom Linear - TMz select one of the linear or circular polarization types
theta real numeric degrees 180 incident elevation angle
phi real numeric degrees 0 incident azimuth angle
The plane wave source dialog.

Point Transmitter Set

ICON: Transmitter icon.png

MODULE: EM.Terrano

FUNCTION: Defines an transmitter set associated with an existing base location set

TO DEFINE A POINT TRANSMITTER SET:

  1. Right-click on the Transmitters item in the navigation tree of EM.Terrano.
  2. Select Insert New Transmitter Set... to open up the Transmitter Set Dialog.
  3. From the drop-down list labeled Select Base Point Set, choose the desired base location set, which can be a single point object or a point array.


PYTHON COMMAND transmitter_set(label,radiator_set[,power,phase,rin_ant,xin_ant])


POINT TRANSMITTER SET PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
baseband power real numeric Watts 1 total transmitted power
phase real numeric degrees 0 phase of transmitted signal
The transmitter set dialog.

Probe Gap Circuit Load

ICON: Lumped device2 icon.png

MODULE: EM.Picasso

FUNCTION: Places a general series-parallel RLC circuit in the middle of an embedded vertical PEC via object

TO DEFINE A PROBE GAP CIRCUIT:

  1. Right-click on the Probe Gap Circuits item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Lumped Device Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a PEC Via object set.
  4. For "Lumped Circuit Type", select the Passive RLC radio button.
  5. Click the Impedance... button of the dialog to open up the Lumped Element Impedance dialog. The default series resistance is 50Ω. Check all the boxes for the series or parallel R, L, C elements as desired and enter values for the resistances, capacitances and inductances.
  6. Click the OK buttons of the dialogs to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: (Only a series resistor when amplitude is set equal to zero.)

probe_src(label,via_object,polarity[,amplitude,phase,resistance])


PROBE GAP LOAD PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
Rs real numeric Ohms 50 series resistor (must be checked)
Ls real numeric nH - series inductor (must be checked)
Cs real numeric pF - series capacitor (must be checked)
Rs real numeric Ohms - parallel resistor (must be checked)
Ls real numeric nH - parallel inductor (must be checked)
Cs real numeric pF - parallel capacitor (must be checked)
The wire gap circuit dialog.
The lumped element impedance dialog.

Probe Gap Circuit Source

ICON: Probe src icon.png

MODULE: EM.Picasso

FUNCTION: Creates an infinitesimal gap across the middle of a vertical PEC via object and places an ideal voltage source with a series internal resistor

TO DEFINE A PROBE GAP SOURCE:

  1. Right-click on the Probe Gap Circuits item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Probe Gap Source Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a PEC via object.
  4. The probe gap source is always placed in the middle of the PEC via object.
  5. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: probe_src(label,via_object,polarity[,amplitude,phase,resistance])


PROBE GAP SOURCE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
polarity List: pos, neg - pos polarity of the voltage source
amplitude real numeric Volts 1 amplitude of voltage source at the gap
phase real numeric degrees 0 phase of voltage source at the gap
The probe gap circuit source dialog.

Resistor

ICON: Lumped device2 icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places a resistor at a specified point on a PEC line object that is parallel to one of the three principal axes

TO DEFINE A RESISTOR:

  1. Right-click on the Lumped Devices item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Lumped Device Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a line object. Note that only line parallel to one of the three principal axes are listed.
  4. From the Type drop-down list, select Resistor.
  5. By default, the lumped device is placed at the midpoint of the host line object. You can modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the start point of the line and is always positive.
  6. Enter a value for Resistance in Ohms. The default resistance is 100Ω.
  7. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: resistor(label,line_object,offset,resistance)


LUMPED RESISTOR PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
offset real numeric project units half the length of host line object distance between the device and the start point of the host line object
resistance real numeric Ohms 50 -
The lumped device dialog with the resistor type selected.

Scattering Wave Port

ICON: Waveport src icon.png

MODULE: EM.Picasso

FUNCTION: Creates an infinitesimal gap across a PEC rectangle strip object at a specified location and places an ideal voltage source with a series internal resistor

TO DEFINE A SCATTERING WAVE PORT:

  1. Right-click on the Scattering Wave Ports item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Wave Port Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a PEC rectangle strip object.
  4. By default, the wave port is placed at one end of the host rect strip object. The incident wave propagates along the host strip towards this end. You can change the direction of the incident wave. You can also modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the endpoint of the host strip. This establishes the phase reference plane for computation of the scattering parameters.
  5. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.

NOTES, SPECIAL CASES OR EXCEPTIONS: A scattering wave port is made up of a gap source that is placed close to an open end of a rectangle strip representing a feed line. The other end of the line is typically connected to a planar structure of interest. in the process of planar mesh generation, EM.Picasso automatically extends the length of a port line that hosts a scattering wave port to about two effective wavelengths. This is done to provide enough length for formation of a clean standing wave current pattern. The effective wavelength of a transmission line for length extension purposes is calculated in a similar manner as for the planar mesh resolution. It is defined as [math]\lambda_{eff} = \tfrac{\lambda_0}{\sqrt{\varepsilon_{eff}}}[/math], where εeff is the effective permittivity. For metal and conductive sheet traces, the effective permittivity is defined as the larger of the permittivities of the two substrate layers just above and below the metallic trace. For slot traces, the effective permittivity is defined as the mean (average) of the permittivities of the two substrate layers just above and below the metallic trace. The host port line must always be open from one end to allow for its length extension. You have to make sure that there are no objects standing on the way of the extended port line to avoid any unwanted overlaps.


PYTHON COMMAND: wave_port(label,rect_object,offset,is_negative[,amplitude,phase])


SCATTERING WAVE PORT PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
direction List: pos, neg - pos direction of the incident wave
offset real numeric project units 0 distance between the source and the endpoint of the host strip object
amplitude real numeric Volts 1 amplitude of incident wave
phase real numeric degrees 0 phase of incident wave

RELATED LINKS: Calculating Scattering Parameters Using Prony's Method

The scattering wave port source dialog.

Series RL Device

ICON: Lumped device2 icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places a collocated series combination of a resistor and an inductor at a specified point on a PEC line object that is parallel to one of the three principal axes

TO DEFINE A SERIES RL DEVICE:

  1. Right-click on the Lumped Devices item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Lumped Device Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a line object. Note that only lines parallel to one of the three principal axes are listed.
  4. From the Type drop-down list, select Series RL.
  5. By default, the lumped device is placed at the midpoint of the host line object. You can modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the start point of the line and is always positive.
  6. Enter a value for Resistance in Ohms and a value for Inductance in nH. The default values are 100Ω and 1nF, respectively.
  7. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: None


LUMPED SERIES RL DEVICE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
offset real numeric project units half the length of host line object distance between the device and the start point of the host line object
resistance real numeric Oms 100
inductance real numeric nH 1 -
The lumped device dialog with the series RL device type selected.

Strip Gap Circuit Load

ICON: Lumped device2 icon.png

MODULE: EM.Oicasso, EM.Libera

FUNCTION: Places a general series-parallel RLC circuit at a specified point on a PEC rectangle strip object

TO DEFINE A STRIP GAP CIRCUIT:

  1. Right-click on the Strip Gap Circuits item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Lumped Device Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a rectangle strip object.
  4. For "Lumped Circuit Type", select the Passive RLC radio button.
  5. By default, the lumped device is placed at the midpoint of the host rectangle strip object. You can modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the center of the strip and can be either positive or negative.
  6. Click the Impedance... button of the dialog to open up the Lumped Element Impedance dialog. The default series resistance is 50Ω. Check all the boxes for the series or parallel R, L, C elements as desired and enter values for the resistances, capacitances and inductances.
  7. Click the OK buttons of the dialogs to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: (Only a series resistor when amplitude is set equal to zero.)

rect_gap_src(label,rect_object,offset,polarity[,amplitude,phase,resistance])


STRIP GAP LOAD PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
offset real numeric project units half the length of host rectangle strip object distance between the device and the center of the host strip object
Rs real numeric Ohms 50 series resistor (must be checked)
Ls real numeric nH - series inductor (must be checked)
Cs real numeric pF - series capacitor (must be checked)
Rs real numeric Ohms - parallel resistor (must be checked)
Ls real numeric nH - parallel inductor (must be checked)
Cs real numeric pF - parallel capacitor (must be checked)
The strip gap circuit dialog.
The lumped element impedance dialog.

Strip Gap Circuit Source

ICON: Gap src icon.png

MODULE: EM.Picasso, EM.Libera

FUNCTION: Creates an infinitesimal gap across a PEC rectangle strip object at a specified location and places an ideal voltage source with a series internal resistor

TO DEFINE A STRIP GAP SOURCE:

  1. Right-click on the Strip Gap Circuits item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Strip Gap Source Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a PEC rectangle strip object.
  4. By default, the strip gap source is placed at the midpoint of the host rect strip object. You can modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the midpoint of the host strip and can be either positive or negative.
  5. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: rect_gap_src(label,rect_object,offset,polarity[,amplitude,phase,resistance])


STRIP GAP SOURCE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
polarity List: pos, neg - pos polarity of the voltage source
offset real numeric project units 0 distance between the source and the midpoint of the host strip object
amplitude real numeric Volts 1 amplitude of voltage source at the gap
phase real numeric degrees 0 phase of voltage source at the gap
The strip gap circuit source dialog.

Waveguide Port

ICON: Wg src icon.png

MODULE: EM.Tempo

FUNCTION: Places a TE10 modal source at a specified location across a hollow PEC box object that is parallel to one of the three principal axes

TO DEFINE A WAVEGUIDE PORT:

  1. Right-click on the Waveguide Ports item in the navigation tree of EM.Tempo.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Waveguide Port Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a box object. Note that only hollow PEC box objects parallel to one of the three principal axes are listed.
  4. By default, the waveguide port is placed in the middle of the host box object parallel to its base. You can modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the bottom base of the box.
  5. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: waveguide_src(label,box_object,offset,is_negative[,amplitude,phase])


WAVEGUIDE PORT PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
direction List: pos, neg - - direction of incident wave propagation
offset real numeric project units half the height of host box object distance between the source and the bottom base of the host box object
The waveguide port source dialog.

Wire Gap Circuit Load

ICON: Lumped device2 icon.png

MODULE: EM.Libera

FUNCTION: Places a general series-parallel RLC circuit at a specified point on a PEC line object

TO DEFINE A WIRE GAP CIRCUIT:

  1. Right-click on the Wire Gap Circuits item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Lumped Device Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a line object.
  4. For "Lumped Circuit Type", select the Passive RLC radio button.
  5. By default, the lumped device is placed at the midpoint of the host line object. You can modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the start point of the line and is always positive.
  6. Click the Impedance... button of the dialog to open up the Lumped Element Impedance dialog. The default series resistance is 50Ω. Check all the boxes for the series or parallel R, L, C elements as desired and enter values for the resistances, capacitances and inductances.
  7. Click the OK buttons of the dialogs to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: (Only a series resistor when amplitude is set equal to zero.)

wire_gap_src(label,line_object,offset,polarity[,amplitude,phase,resistance])


WIRE GAP LOAD PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
offset real numeric project units half the length of host line object distance between the device and the start point of the host line object
Rs real numeric Ohms 50 series resistor (must be checked)
Ls real numeric nH - series inductor (must be checked)
Cs real numeric pF - series capacitor (must be checked)
Rs real numeric Ohms - parallel resistor (must be checked)
Ls real numeric nH - parallel inductor (must be checked)
Cs real numeric pF - parallel capacitor (must be checked)
The wire gap circuit dialog.
The lumped element impedance dialog.

Wire Gap Circuit Source

ICON: Gap src icon.png

MODULE: EM.Libera

FUNCTION: Creates an infinitesimal gap across a PEC or thin wire line object at a specified location and places an ideal voltage source with a series internal resistor

TO DEFINE A WIRE GAP SOURCE:

  1. Right-click on the Wire Gap Circuits item in the navigation tree.
  2. Select Insert New Source... to open up the Wire Gap Source Dialog.
  3. From the Host drop-down list, select a PEC or thin wire line object.
  4. By default, the wire gap source is placed at the midpoint of the host line object. You can modify the Offset parameter, which is measured from the start point of the host line and is always positive.
  5. Click the OK button of the dialog to return to the project workspace.


PYTHON COMMAND: wire_gap_src(label,line_object,offset,polarity[,amplitude,phase,resistance])


WIRE GAP SOURCE PARAMETERS

Parameter Name Value Type Units Default Value Notes
polarity List: pos, neg - pos polarity of the voltage source
offset real numeric project units 0 distance between the source and the start point of the host line object
amplitude real numeric Volts 1 amplitude of voltage source at the gap
phase real numeric degrees 0 phase of voltage source at the gap
The wire gap circuit source dialog.



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